List of CIA MKULTRA Subprojects And Related Documents

I. Introduction To MK-Ultra & mind control (Targetedjustice.com)

The CIA’s horrific mind control experiments.
​#DeFundCIA

The Secrets of Mind Control

MK Ultra & Mind Control (Targeted Justice)

This mind control summary is based on astonishing excerpts from three landmark books: Bluebird by Colin Ross, MD; Mind Controllers by Armen Victorian; and A Nation Betrayed by Carol Rutz. The authors provide hundreds of footnotes to support their thorough research. Their revealing information is derived largely from 18,000 pages of declassified CIA mind control documents. To order these key documents from the U.S. government, click here.

The Secret Agenda of Mind Control

Please note: the letters and numbers after each paragraph denote the book and page number from which the information was taken. BB–Bluebird MC–Mind Controllers NB–A Nation Betrayed.

A declassified CIA document dated 7 Jan 1953 [1] describes the creation of multiple personality in 19-year old girls. “These subjects have clearly demonstrated that they can pass from a fully awake state to a deep H [hypnotic] controlled state … by telephone, by receiving written matter, or by the use of code, signal, or words and that control of those hypnotized can be passed from one individual to another without great difficulty. It has also been shown by experimentation with these girls that they can act as unwilling couriers for information purposes.” BB 32Under the provisions of the National Security Act of 1947, the CIA was established. One of the main areas investigated by the CIA was mind control. The program was motivated by Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques. The CIA originated its first program in 1950 under the name BLUEBIRD. MKULTRA officially began in 1953. In 1973, tipped off about forthcoming investigations, CIA Director Richard Helms ordered the destruction of any MKULTRA records. [2] MC 3, 10, 17
The Senate Intelligence Committee did find some records during its investigation in 1976. Senator Frank Church, who led the congressional investigations of the CIA’s unlawful actions, said that the agency was “a rogue elephant” operating above the law as it plotted assassinations, illegally spied on thousands of Americans, and even drugged citizens in its effort to develop new weapons for its covert arsenal. [3] In 1977, through a Freedom of Information Act request, 16,000 pages of mind control documents were found as part of the Agency’s financial history. That is how this information has been pieced together. MC 5, 18, NB xvi, 38

The CIA Mind Control Projects

A CIA document dated 10 Feb 1954 [4] describes an experiment on the creation of unsuspecting assassins: “Miss [deleted] was then instructed (having expressed a fear of firearms) that she would use every method at her disposal to awaken Miss [deleted] (now in a deep hypnotic sleep) and failing this, she would pick up a pistol and fire it at Miss [deleted]. She was instructed that she would not hesitate to “kill.” Miss [deleted] carried out these suggestions including firing the (unloaded) gun at [deleted]. After proper suggestions were made, both were awakened. Miss [deleted] expressed absolute denial that the foregoing sequence had happened.” BB 36, 37MKULTRA grew into a mammoth undertaking. The nature of the research included these specific problems:

Can we create by post-H (hypnotic) control an action contrary to an individual’s basic moral principles?
Can we “alter” a person’s personality? Can we guarantee total amnesia under any and all conditions?
Could we seize a subject and in the space of an hour by post-H control have him crash an airplane?
Can we devise a system for making unwilling subjects into willing agents and then transfer that control to untrained agency agents in the field by use of codes or identifying signs? NB 13, 14, 28 [5]

In a 1971 Science Digest article [6], Dr. G.H. Estabrooks states, “By the 1920’s clinical hypnotists learned to split certain individuals into multiple personalities like Jeckyl-Hydes. During WWII, I worked this technique with a Marine lieutenant I’ll call Jones. I split his personality into Jones A and Jones B. Jones A, once a ‘normal’ Marine, became entirely different. He talked communist doctrine and meant it. He was welcomed enthusiastically by communist cells, and was deliberately given a dishonorable discharge. Jones B was the deeper personality, knew all the thoughts of Jones A, and was ‘imprinted’ to say nothing during conscious phases. All I had to do was hypnotize him, get in touch with Jones B, and I had a pipeline straight into the Communist camp.” BB 167-169 [For more on CIA mind control projects, click here.]

Dr. Jose Delgado, a neurosurgeon and Yale professor, [7][8][9] received funding for brain electrode research on children and adults. In the 1950s, he developed a miniature electrode placed within an individual’s cranium capable of receiving and transmitting electronic signals. Delgado was able to control the movements of his subjects by pushing buttons on a remote transmitter. He demonstrated by wiring a fully-grown bull. With the device in place, Delgado stepped into the ring with the bull. The animal charged towards the experimenter – and then suddenly stopped, just before it reached him. The powerful beast had been stopped with the simple action of pushing a button on a small box held in Delgado’s hand. [10] MC 147, BB 88

The Mind Control Doctors

In the second half of the 20th century, mind control projects resulted in extensive political abuse of psychiatry. Many thousands were subjected to unethical mind control experiments by leading psychiatrists and medical schools. Mind control experimentation was not only tolerated by medical professionals, but published in psychiatric and medical journals. Dr. William Sweet participated in both brain electrode implant experiments and the injection of uranium into medical patients at Harvard University. [11][12] Army doctors were involved in LSD testing at least until the late 1970’s. Subjects of LSD experiments included children as young as five years old, and brain electrodes were implanted in children as young as 11 years of age. BB, pg. K, 1, 21
Linda MacDonald was a victim of Dr. Ewen Cameron’s [13][14][15][16] destructive mind control experiments in 1963. Dr. Cameron was president of the American and World Psychiatric Associations. He used a “treatment” which involved intensive application of these brainwashing techniques; drug disinhibition, prolonged sleep, and prolonged psychological isolation. These were combined with ECT [Electro Convulsive Therapy]. [17][18][19]The amount of electricity introduced into Linda’s brain exceeded by 76.5 times the maximum amount recommended. Dr. Cameron’s technique resulted in permanent and complete amnesia. A class action suit against the CIA for Dr. Cameron’s MKULTRA experiments was settled out of court for $750,000, divided among eight plaintiffs in 1988. BB 126, 181-187 For more on the mind control doctors, click here.
26 July 1963, Memorandum For: Director of Central Intelligence [20] From: CIA Inspector General
The concepts involved in manipulating behavior are found by many people both within and outside the Agency [CIA] to be distasteful and unethical. Nevertheless, there have been major accomplishments both in research and operational employment. Over the ten-year life of the program many additional avenues to the control of human behavior have been designated under the MKULTRA charter, including radiation, electro-shock, and harassment substances. Some activities raise questions of legality. A final phase of the testing places the rights and interests of US citizens in jeopardy.

Technical Services Division initiated a program for covert testing of materials on unwitting US citizens in 1955. TSD has pursued a philosophy of minimum documentation in keeping with the high sensitivity of the projects. Some files contained little or no data at all. There are just two individuals in TSD who have full knowledge of the MKULTRA program. NB 108-113

For 10 riveting pages of reliable, verifiable mind control information, click here
For key excerpts from the most astounding CIA mind control documents, click here
For other reliable resources on mind control, visit our Mind Control Information Center

[1] CIA MORI ID 190684, pp. 1, 4. This is a declassified CIA document dealing with mind control. For free, unlimited access to this and other mind control documents, see our archive of these declassified documents. To go directly to the CIA document quoted, for page 1, click here. For page 4, click here. You can also verify the statement in the text using a FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described on our ten-page mind control summary at this link.

[2] New York Times, Aug. 2, 1977, Mind-Control Studies Had Origins in Trial of Mindszenty. This engaging article includes a concise history of mind control projects. To view the entire article, click here. The U.S. Department of Energy Website also provides a highly revealing, detailed report of these mind control projects and the destruction of their records available here. See also a CIA document available here.

[3] Final Report. Book 1, Foreign and Military Intelligence. Senate Select Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Congress, 2nd Session, 26 April 1976, Special Report No. 94-755 (Better known as the Church Committee Report). See Book 1, p. 406. For instructions on how to order this document from the National Archives, click here. For a related article on George Washington University’s National Security Archive website, click here. For an excellent Wikipedia article, click here.

[4] CIA MORI ID 190691, p. 1. This is a declassified CIA document dealing with mind control. For unlimited access to this and other mind control documents, see our archive of these declassified documents. To go directly to the page with the document quoted, click here. You can also verify the text statement using a FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described on our ten-page mind control summary at this link.

[5] CIA MORI ID 140401, pp. 6, 7. This is a declassified CIA document dealing with mind control from Project BLUEBIRD, the immediate precursor to Project MKULTRA. Its estimated publication date is 1/1/52. The nature of the BLUEBIRD research was very similar that of Project MKULTRA. To order this highly revealing document click here and follow the instructions. For reasons unknown, this document is not included in the mind control CDs, but you can read the text of the entire declassified document at this link.

[6] Estabrooks, G.H. Hypnosis comes of age. Science Digest, 44-50, April 1971. A revealing excerpt of this article is available here.

[7] Delgado, J.M.R. Evaluation of permanent implantation of electrodes within the brain. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 7, 637-644, 1955. To order, click here.

[8] Delgado, J.M.R. Social rank and radio-stimulated aggressiveness in monkeys. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 144, 383-390, 1967. To order, click here.

[9] Delgado, J.M.R. Physical Control of the Mind. New York: Harper & Row, paperback 1977. Order here.

[10] New York Times, May 17, 1965, front page, ‘Matador’ With a Radio Stops Wired Bull; Modified Behavior in Animals Subject of Brain Study. Instructions to purchase this article from the New York Times archives and a free copy of the article are available at

www.WantToKnow.info/650517nytimes.

[11] Faden, R.R. Final Report. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995. The full, highly revealing report on the U.S. Department of Energy Website is available here. For pages detailing Dr. Sweet’s experiments, see chapter five page 4, page 5.

[12] Mark, V.H., & Ervin, F.R. Violence and the Brain. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. Order here.

[13] Gillmor, D. I Swear By Apollo. Dr. Ewen Cameron and the CIA-Brainwashing Experiments. Montreal: Eden press, 1987. To order this book, click here.

[14] Scheflin, A.W., & Opton, E.M. The Mind manipulators. New York: Paddington Press, 1978. Order here.

[15] Thomas, G. Journey into Madness. The Secret Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse. New York: Bantam, 1989 (paperback 1990). To order this book, click here.

[16] Weinstein, H. Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1990. To order this book, click here.

[17] Collins, A. In the Sleep Room. The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1988/1998. To order this book, click here.

[18] Cameron, D.E. Production of differential amnesia as a factor in the treatment of schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1, 26-34, 1960.

[19] Cameron, D.E., Levy, L. Rubenstein, L., & Malmo, R.B. Repetition of verbal signals: Behavioral and physiological changes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 985-991, 1959.

[20] CIA MORI ID 17748, pp. 2, 4, 6-9. This is a declassified CIA document dealing with mind control. You can verify the statement in the text using a FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described on our ten-page mind control summary at this link. For free, unlimited access to these documents, go to our archive of declassified mind control documents. To go directly to the CIA documents quoted:
For page 2, click here.
For page 4, click here.
For page 6, click here.
For page 7, click here.
For page 8, click here.
For page 9, click here.

In addition the above CIA document, to verify this quote and other key mind control information in a highly revealing July 21, 1977 New York Times article available in their archives, click here.

II. List of MKULTRA Subprojects

CIA MKULTRA / Mind Control Collection

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Home Government Conspiracy List of 149 MKULTRA Subprojects
Government Conspiracy

List of 149 MKULTRA Subprojects

By Illuminati Rex

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Complete list of all 149 MKULTRA subprojects. Who, When, What, Where, Why, and How, and links to FOIA documents available for each subproject.

I’ve included the MORI ID to official documents obtained via the Freedom of Information Act. Readers are encouraged to verify given information for themselves.

MORI – Management of Officially Released Information is an electronic imaging system developed by the CIA.

MKULTRA Subproject 1:
Isolate and characterize the alkaloids of ipomoea sidalia choisy (Rivea Corymbosa)
MORI ID: 17354

Contractor: BLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Princeton University
Years: 1953 ― 1954
CIA Monitor: Robert V. Lashbrook

MKULTRA Subproject 2: (See Subprojects 124 and 140)
Miscellaneous research and testing services in behavioral modification. 1. Study the possible synergistic action of drugs which may be appropriate for use in abolishing consciousness through animal experimentation. 2. Survey of methods to enable the administration of drugs to patients without their knowledge.
MORI ID: 17415

Contractor: James Hamilton
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Locations: Stanford University
Years: 1953 ― 1958
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Robert V. Lashbrook
MKULTRA Subproject 3: (See Subprojects 16, 42, 132, and 149)
Realistic field testing of R&D items of interest to Technical Services Staff. This is the infamous safehouses known as Operation Midnight Climax.
MORI ID: 17426

Contractor: George White (alias Morgan Hall, “a seaman”)
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Locations: New York City and San Francisco
Years: 1953 ― 1956
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT

Mulholland’s Manual
(Read Now | Buy Now)
MKULTRA Subproject 4:
Subprojects 4, 15, and 19 are to fund the contractor, a magician, to write a manual on the various aspects of the magicians’ art which could be useful in covert operations. The result was Mulholland’s Manual, declassified and published in 2009 as The Official CIA Manual of Trickery and Deception.
MORI ID: 17437

Contractor: John Mulholland
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1953 ― 1954
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 5:
Successful demonstration of “potentialities of hypnosis as a tool of the clandestine services”. Research in hypnosis was to determine if: hypnosis could be used as a memory enhancer, a learning aid, a polygraph deceiver, etc. Also,research into susceptibility of certain personality types to hypnosis.
MORI ID: 17448

Contractor: Alden Sears
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Locations: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, University of Minnesota, University of Denver
Years: 1953 ― 1956
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 6:
Develop reliable source of LSD within the United States and assist in the search for additional natural hypnotic products. Previously supplier, Sandoz, based in Switzerland.
MORI ID: 17459

Contractor: Eli Lilly Company
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Indianapolis, Indiana
Years: 1953 ― 1955
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Robert V. Lashbrook
MKULTRA Subproject 7: (See Subprojects 27 and 40)
LSD basic research. The studies included the use of LSD in therapy. As far as is known, subjects in this experimentation were witting. Funds are included for the payment of subjects.
MORI ID: 17470

Contractor: Harold Abramson
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Locations: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1952 ― 1956
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation for Medical Research
MKULTRA Subproject 8: (See subprojects 10, 63 and 66)
Study of the biochemical, neurophysiological, sociological, and clinical psychiatric aspects of LSD, and also a study of LSD antagonists and drugs related to LSD, such as L.A.E. (Lysergic Acid Ethylamide). Testing upon human volunteers.
MORI ID: 17481

Contractor: Robert Hyde
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts
Years: 1953 ― 1955
CIA Monitor: Robert V. Lashbrook
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation for Medical Research
MKULTRA Subproject 9:
Study various depressant drugs which may more adequately control the maniacal psychotic patient, and test drugs that may help alcoholics and schizophrenics.
MORI ID: 17492

Contractor: Carl Pfeiffer
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Emory University and University of Illinois
Years: 1954 ― 1955
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 10: (See 8, 63 and 66)
Study tested and evaluated the effect of LSD and alcohol when administered to individuals falling under various personality categories.
MORI ID: 17355

Contractor: Robert Hyde
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1952 ― 1957
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and Louis deFlorez
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation for Medical Research
MKULTRA Subproject 11:
Developing and stockpiling toxins. Identify and produce in sufficient quantity for experimentation the active ingredients n certain seeds and plants. Preparation of a supply of the toxic protein, Abrin.
MORI ID: 17366

Contractor: ?
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1953 ― 1955
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 12:
Isolate and investigate the chemicals responsible for the biological activities of materia1spresent in the bark of Piscidia Erythrina.
MORI ID: 17377

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1953 ― 1954
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 13: (See subproject 30)
Funding of Agency activity at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Petty cash fund for use where proper channels for a given activity will require an undesirable amount of written or oral justification. Expedient purchase of materials.
MORI ID: 17388

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Fort Detrick
Years: 1953 ― 1955
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 14:
OPERATION BLACK Payment to the Federal Bureau of Narcotics for the services of George White. Harry Anslinger, Commissioner of Narcotics.
MORI ID: 17399

Contractors: George H. White, Bureau of Narcotics
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: New York City
Years: July to November 1953
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb
MKULTRA Subproject 15:
Subprojects 4, 15, and 19 are to fund the contractor, a magician, to write a manual on the various aspects of the magicians’ art which could be useful in covert operations. The result was Mulholland’s Manual, declassified and published in 2009 as The Official CIA Manual of Trickery and Deception.
MORI ID: 17410

Contractor: John Mulholland
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1953 ― 1954
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 16: (See 3, 42, and 149)
A continuation of Subproject No. 3 for realistic testing of R&D items of interest to Technical Services Staff.
MORI ID: 17411

Contractor: George White (alias Morgan Hall, “a seaman”)
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Locations: New York City
Years: 1953 ― 1954
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 17:
Synthesis of LSD and related compounds by chemical means; and learning the metabolism, site of action, etc., of LSD and related compounds.
MORI ID: 17412

Contractor: Harold Hodge
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: University of Denver and University of Minnesota.
Years: 1953 ― 1955
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Robert V. Lashbrook
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fundation
MKULTRA Subproject 18:
Technical Services Division authorized to spend $400,000 for the purchase of LSD from Eli Lilly. ($400,000 obligated of which only $l,337.45 expended)
MORI ID: 17413

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: Indianapolis, Indiana
Years: December 1953
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb
MKULTRA Subproject 19:
Subprojects 4, 15, and 19 are to fund the contractor, a magician, to write a manual on the various aspects of the magicians’ art which could be useful in covert operations. The result was Mulholland’s Manual, declassified and published in 2009 as The Official CIA Manual of Trickery and Deception.
MORI ID: 17414

Contractor: John Mulholland
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1953 ― 1954
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 20:
Prepare a supp1y of the dimannich derivative of Yohimbine hydrochloride for use in other approved projects.
MORI ID: 17416

Contractor: Pedlow Nease Chemical Company, Inc
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Lock Haven, Pennsylvania
Years: 1953
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb and Robert V. Lashbrook
MKULTRA Subproject 21:
The original concept was to test the pharmacalogical activity of various materials (provided by Dr. Geschickter, acting as a cut-out)of interest to the Agency.
MORI ID: 17417

Contractor: ?
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: ?
Years: 1953
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 22:
Isolate compounds from natural products which have psychogenic properties. Initially research was done en seeds from the plant Ipomoea sidaefolia Choisy, a Mexican and Cuban trailing vine. Rivea Corymbosa and, the fungus Amanita Muscaria, a mushroom.
MORI ID: 17418

Contractor: William Boyd Cook
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Montana State College
Years: 1954 ― 1963
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 23: (See 45)
Synthesize new drugs and modify old ones to determine their effectiveness in modifying behavior and the function of the central nervous system.
MORI ID: 17419

Contractor: Charles Geschickter
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Richmond
Years: 1954
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 24:
Fund meetings at sterile locations for brain-stroming sessions by MKULTRA contractors.
MORI ID: 17420

Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1954
MKULTRA Subproject 25:
To determine the applicability of hypnosis techniques for Agency operational usage.
MORI ID: 17421

Contractor: Alden Sears
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Minnesota
Years: 1954 ― 1955
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 26: (see 9)
Sub-Project No. 26 is a follow-on from No. 9. Human testing on volunteers of drugs which may aid in the treatment of the schizophrenic patient by either altering his metabolism or producing sedation.
MORI ID: 17422

Contractor: Carl Pfeiffer
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Illinois
Years: 1955 ― 1955
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 27: (See Subprojects 7, 33, and 40)
LSD basic research. The studies included the use of LSD in therapy. As far as is known, subjects in this experimentation were witting. Funds are included for the payment of subjects.
MORI ID: 17423

Contractor: Harold Abramson
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Locations: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1952 ― 1956
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation for Medical Research
MKULTRA Subproject 28:
Study in animals and man drugs, essentially depressents, which affect the central
nervous system.
MORI ID: 17424

Contractor: Carl Pfeiffer
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Emory University
Years: 1954 ― 1955
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 29:
To fund work on hypnosis. The scope was increased to acquiring extensive psychological profiles of all subjects in an effort to develop significant keys to hypnotic susceptibility which may be adaptable to field use.
MORI ID: 17425

Contractor: Alden Sears
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Denver
Years: 1954 ― 1955
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 30: (See 13)
To add money to a petty cash fund to support an Agency activity at Fort Detrick.
MORI ID: 17427

Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Ft. Detrick, Maryland
Years: 1958 ― 1960
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 31: (See 4 and 20)
To supply TSD/CB (Technical Service Division/Chemical Branch) 2 kilograms of a rare organic chemical that is not commercially available.
MORI ID: 17428

Contractor: Pedlow Nease Chemical Company, Inc
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Lock Haven, Pennsylvania
Years: 1954
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 32: (See 12)
To study medicinally active plants which have ingredients of interest to the Agency. This is a continuation of Sub-Project No. 12.
MORI ID: 17429

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1954 ― 1955
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 33: (See 27)
Provide funds to correct an error amounting to $400 which arose in calculating the service project on Project 27.
MORI ID: 17430

Contractor: Harold Abramson
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1954
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 34: (See 4, 15, and 19)
The application of the magicians’ art to covert activities.
MORI ID: 17431

Contractor: John Mulholland
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1955 ― 1958
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 35:
To further Technical Services Division’s chemical and biological requirements, a single, non-recurring grant ($375,000)was made to Georgetown Hospital for a new Research Wing (the Gorman building). The arrangement would permit Agency-sponsored research projects, using Agency personnel, to be carried out in the new wing without being aware of CIA interest.
MORI ID: 17432

Contractor: Charles Geschickter
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Georgetown Hospital
Years: 1955
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 36:
To provide funds for a symposium on behavior modification, where MKULTRA principals may exchange ideas in their particular fields.
MORI ID: 17433

Location: ?
Years: 1954 ― 1955
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 37:
To produce, grow, test and evaluate certain botanicals of interest to CIA.
MORI ID: 17434

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1954
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Ray Treichler, and and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 38:
To investigate the psychological effects of the drugs chlorpromazine, meratron, serpentine, and bulbocapnine upon human beings.
MORI ID: 17435

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1954 ― 1955
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 39:
To exploit the research potential represented by a group of 142 criminal-sexual psychopaths confined at the Ionic State Hospital. The Agency believed that patients had the same kind of motivation for withholding certain information that is comparable to operational interrogation situations in the field.
MORI ID: 17436

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Ionic State Hospital for the Criminally Insane, Michigan
Years: 1954 ― 1959
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert V. Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 40: (See Subprojects 7 and 27)
LSD basic research. The studies included the use of LSD in therapy. As far as is known, subjects in this experimentation were witting. Funds are included for the payment of subjects.
MORI ID: 17438

Contractor: Harold Abramson
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Locations: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1952 ― 1956
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation for Medical Research
MKULTRA Subproject 41: (See 20 and 31)
To fund the synthesis of rare organic chemicals that were not commercially available. (Encloxy-3-Methyl-Hexahydrophthalic Anhydride and N,N-Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine)
MORI ID: 17439

Contractor: Pedlow Nease Chemical Company, Inc
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Lock Haven, Pennsylvania
Years: 1955
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Robert Lashbrook
MKULTRA Subproject 42:
Support and realistically field test certain R&D items of interest to Technical Services Division and to maintain physical facilities required for these trials – also for the covert administration of physiologically active materials to unwitting subjects. The files indicate that Sub-Project No. 42 is a continuation of No. 16, with Morgan Hall’s facilities moved from New York City to San Francisco.
MORI ID: 17440 (BlackVault)

Contractor: Morgan Hall (alias for George H. White, Bureau of Narcotics)
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: San Francisco
Years: 1955 ― 1964
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Ray Treichler, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 43:
Study to perform research in the field of psychology of the dissociated states and of hypnosis.
MORI ID: 17441

Contractor: Louis J. West
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Oklahoma
Years: 1955 ― 1956
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Robert Lashbrook, James H. Drum, and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 44:
The objective of this research was to develop screening and bio-assay techniques for psychotomimetic (capable of producing a psychotic-like state) agents which do not involve human testing. The work was not classified.
MORI ID: 17442

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Chicago
Years: 1956 ― 1958
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 45:
This project involved the search for, and preliminary testing of, materials (not mentioned) which might alter consciousness and have other physiologic effects (alteration of blood pressure, cardiovascular responses, body temperature or anti-cancer properties).
MORI ID: 17443

Contractor: Charles Geschickter
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Richmond
Years: 1955 ― 1963
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 46:
Research into the mechanics and effects of LSD: (l) Develop a specific antidote; (2) a sensitive method for assaying it in urine and in blood; (3) a screening system for psychochemicals; (4) determine the relationship between chemical structures and biological activity in this type material; (5) study the structural relationship between LSD-25 and other similar materials now available. Sponsors: Eli Lilly Company and Public Health Service.
MORI ID: 17444

Contractor: Harold Hodge
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1955 ― 1963
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 47:
Study drugs affecting the central nervous system, looking towards an anti-interrogation drug. Also, to screen and evaluate hallucinogenic materials of interest to Technical Services Division. Testing on human volunteers at Atlanta Federal Penitentiary.
MORI ID: 17445

Contractor: Carl Pfeiffer
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Emory University, New Jersey Neuropsychiatric Institute, Atlanta Federal Penitentiary
Years: 1955 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: Ray Treichler, Sidney Gottlieb, Robert Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 48:
(1) Chinese Project which uses BLACKEBLACKEDOUT volunteer students in motivational research studies with the objective of determining the best way to recruit and motivate neutral agents.
(2) Psychological study of defectors
(3) Studied Communist indoctrination techniques and stress psychology in general.

*This project also created the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology as a cut-out mechanism.
MORI ID: 17446

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Cornell University Medical School
Years: 1955
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb
MKULTRA Subproject 49: (See 5, 25 and 29)
Research into the nature of hypnosis and possible operational uses including the use of hypnosis as a learning aid; use in interrogation and counter-interrogation. Uses and limitations of hypnosis.
MORI ID: 17447

Contractor: Aldan Sears
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Psychology Department at the University of Denver, Colorado
Years: 1956
CIA Monitors: Or. Sidney Gottlieb and Willis A. Gibbons
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 50: (See 30 and 13)
To supplement a petty cash at Ft. Detrick. (cancelled by Technical Services Division who did not want the accountings to go outside MKULTRA procedures)
MORI ID: 17449

Location: Fort Detrick, Maryland
Years: 1955
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Willis A. Gibbons, and C.V.S. Roosevelt
MKULTRA Subproject 51:
Isolate, characterize and identify naturally occurring compounds with psychogenic properties. Much of this work was done with mushrooms.
MORI ID: 17450

Contractor: James Monroe
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Delaware
Years: 1955 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Ray Treichler, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 52:
Provided consulting services on procurement and preparation of chemicals for Technical Services Division. Procured botanical specimens, primarily
mushrooms, on field trips.
MORI ID: 17451

Contractor: James Monroe
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Delaware
Years: 1958
CIA Monitors: Ray Treichler and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 53:
Review overt Russian and American pharmacological literature with respect to the problems of Technical Services Division.
MORI ID: 17452

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1955 ― 1956
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Dr. Raymond Treichler
MKULTRA Subproject 54:
To study the mechanism of brain concussion.
MORI ID: 17453

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Office of Naval Research
Contractor’s Clearance: Cleared (unspecified level)
Location: ?
Years: 1955
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 55:
Discover the pharmacological effects of certain groups of compounds prepared by and associates of the Department of Pathology. Animal tests were conducted.
MORI ID: 17454

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Professor of Pharmacology,
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: ?
Years: 1956
CIA Monitor: Sidney Gottlieb, Robert Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 56:
Alcohol Research – Determining effectiveness of food in delaying alcohol absorption; effectiveness of sympathominetic drugs in delaying absorption; develop a test of alcohol tolerance.
MORI ID: 17455

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Stanford University or Medicine
Years: 1956 ― 1960
CIA Monitors: Robert Lashbrook, Sidney Gottlieb, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 57:
Perform research on sleep and on insomnia – with emphasis on narcosis induced sleep.
MORI ID: 17456

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: George Washington University
Years: 1956 ― 1957
CIA Monitors: Robert Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 58:
Finance an expedition,headed by Gordon Wasson for the purpose of studying and collecting hallucinogenic species of mushrooms of interest to TSS/CD. Sponsor J . P. Morgan & Co. of New York unwitting of Agency sponsorship.
MORI ID: 17457

Contractor: Gordon Wasson
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: South America
Years: 1956
CIA Monitor: Robert Lashbrook
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 59:
Pharmacological testing and evaluation of certain checmical compounds that might have properties of interest to Technical Services Division.
MORI ID: 17458

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: University of Maryland
Years: 1956 ― 1957
CIA Monitor: Robert Lashbrook
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 60:
This project established a covert funding mechanism, the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, Inc., (SIHE), for the support of sociological and psychological studies. Prior to SIHE, this activity was part of the Human Ecology Study Program of Cornell University, which sponsored, with Agency financial assistance, studies primarily at Cornell.

Many projects of little or no direct value to CIA were funded, primarily to develop the cover of SIHE as a legitimate Foundation.
MORI ID: 17460 (BlackVault)

Location: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, Inc., New York City.
Years: 1956 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 61:
Study the role of the human brain in overall adaptive behavior. Specifically, the relationship of changes in behavior due to stress to changes in behavior brought about by loss of cerebral tissues.
MORI ID: 17461

Contractor: Harold Wolff, Cornell University Medical School
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: Ithaca, New York
Years: 1956 ― 1960
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Robert Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation and Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 62:
Finance studies on the effect of physical and chemical agents on the central nervous system of anthropoids (man-like animals) at National Institute of Health and unspecified involvement with “an LSD Project”.
MORI ID: 17462 (BlackVault)

Contractor: Maitland Balwin, National Institute of Health
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Years: 1956 ― 1963
CIA Monitors: Robert V. Lashbrook, Ray Treichler, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 63: (See 8, 10 and 66)
The purpose of this project is to maintain the professional services of Robert Hyde to the technical Services Division. Field work observation in taverns and private parties relating to psychopharmaceuticals and alcohol.
MORI ID: 17463

Contractor: Robert Hyde
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1956 ― 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, C.V.S. Roosevelt, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 64:
To compensate Dr. Geschickter for personal services rendered but not charged against the funding mechanism account. These services were said to include consultations in personnel and facilities for research programs, covert procurement of drugs and other material, time spent on cover activities with the fund, and personal time spent in covert testing of materials and gadgetry not connected with Geschickter’s Fund projects.
MORI ID: 17464

Contractor: Charles F. Geschickter, M.D.
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Washington, D.C.
Years: 1955 ― 1956
CIA Monitor: Robert V. Lashbrook
MKULTRA Subproject 65:
study on Hungarian defectors of factors which influence human behavior that could be used for achieving intelligence objectives. There were three efforts : (1) To better understand factors which cause an individual to defect, commit treason or change loyalties; (2) To develop skills by which potential defectors can be detected; and (3) To develop methods for increasing the chances of defection of various target individuals.
MORI ID: 17465

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Cornell University
Years: 1957 ― 1958
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 66: (See 8, 10 and 63)
test a number of techniques for predicting a given individual’s reactions to LSD-25, other psychochemicals and alcohol.
MORI ID: 17466

Contractor: Robert Hyde
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Butler Hospital and Health Center
Years: 1956 ― 1960
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
C.V.S. Roosevelt, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 67:
Library searches, consultation assessment and evaluation of data submitted by Technical Services Division. Translation and transcription services.
MORI ID: 17467

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Institute 0f Sex Research
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: University of Indiana
Years: 1957
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 68:
To study the effect upon human behavior of the repetition of verbal signals. Patients were treated with LSD-25 and other similar agents to break down patterns of behavior. The plan included intensive repetition of prearranged verbal signals. Patient were kept in sensory isolation then continuous sleep for seven to ten days. Dr. Cameron completed over 100 cases.
MORI ID: 17468

Contractor: Ewen Cameron
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: Allan Memorial Institute of Psychiatry at McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Years: 1957 ― 1959 (?)
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Sidney Gottlieb, and Robert V. Lashbrook
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 69:
To interview Hungarian refugees regarding Sociology of the Communist system in the throes of revolution
MORI ID: 17469

Contractor: Ray Stephenson and Jay Schulman
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: Rutgers University
Years: 1957
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Robert V. Lashbrook
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 70: (See 57, 71, 72)
Develop a temporary incapacitatant drug (“Knockout drug”) and to define mechanisms involved in producing involuntary sleep and related unconscious states. Testing was conducted en animals.
MORI ID: 17471

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Stanford University
Years: 1957 ― 1961
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Ray Treichler
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Science Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 71: (See 70,72)
The purpose of this project was to continue the utilization of Dr. Dr. Wallace Chan who during this period was located at the department of Medicine, Neurology Division, Stanford University School of Medicine. He did clinical testing and evaluation of anti-interrogation drugs, monitored other projects being performed at Stanford, attempted to develop miniatured polygraph, reviewed literature, attended and reported on meetings, and acted as a consultant.
MORI ID: 17472

Contractor: Dr. Wallace Chan
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Stanford University
Years: 1957 ― 1961
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Sidney Gottlieb
MKULTRA Subproject 72: (See 70,71)
Perform research on the neurophysiological and pharmacological effects of central nervous system antagonists and synergists at Stanford University School of Medicine.
MORI ID: 17473

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Stanford University
Years: 1956 ― 1957
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Science Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 73:
Establish whether susceptibility to hypnosis can be increased by use of drugs, such as alcohol, mescaline, scopolamine, LSD, etc. Also, to determine the extent to which various drugs possess specific “hypnosis-like” effects.
MORI ID: 17474

Contractor: Harris Isbell
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Kentucky, Lexington Kentucky Narcotics Farms
Years: 1957
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Science Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 74:
As the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology (SIHE) became better known in the scientific community and its reputation grew, the CIA decided that in order for to maintain its bona fides with the scientific community, the Society should fund selected smaller research proposals as a “cover”, even though there was little, if any, interest in or prospects for a product of value to CIA from these proposals. Consisted of many (in excess of 25) grantees, both individuals and institutions, in various parts of the United States and the world.
MORI ID: 17475

Contractor: Carl Rogers
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Wisconsin
Years: 1958 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 75:
Studies of the effects of psychotomimetic substances utilizing psychological and physiological observations. Funds were also expended under this sub-project to assist in the publication costs of the proceedings of the symposium on “Specific and Non-specific Factors in Psychopharmacology” of the third World Congress of Psychiatry, Montreal.
MORI ID: 17476

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1960 ― 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 76:
To perform a one-year study on anti-authoritarian behavior as an extension of earlier Technical Services Division work on Communist prison methods as they affect U.S. Prisoners of War.
MORI ID: 17477

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1958 ― 1959
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 77:
Explored the basic elements of two personality theories of David Saunders and attempt to integrate them.
MORI ID: 17478

Contractor: David Saunders, Educational Testing Services
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Educational Testing Service, Princeton, Mew Jersey
Years: 1957 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology, Human Ecology Fund
⛔ Subproject 78: To provide complete micro-biological support ranging from research establishing production capabilities to meet Technical Services Division special requirements. Provides cover and acts as a cut-out for special
jobs.
MORI ID: 17479
This is a huge 999-page document. Both Archive’s and Black Vault’s copy show “image not available”

Contractor: Bacterial and Pharmaceutical Consultants, Inc.
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1957 ― 1964
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Robert V. Lashbrook, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 79:
The H. J. Rand Foundation of Cleveland, Ohio agreed to act in the capacity of a “cut-out” for the purpose of funding organizations engaged in very sensitive research.
MORI ID: 17480

Contractor: H.J. Rand Foundation
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Cleveland, Ohio
Years: 1957 ― 1962
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Willis Gibbons
MKULTRA Subproject 80:
To provide services of a very sensitive nature to conduct extraction and identification techniques of drugs, toxins and biological entities from human tissues.
MORI ID: 17482

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: ?
Years: 1958 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Ray Treichler
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 81:
Study of the adjustment of Hungarian refugees including tne psychological testing and examining of some refugees.
MORI ID: 17483

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: Cornell
Years: 1958
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 82:
Problems of adaptation to life in Netherlands of Hungarian refugees of the 1956 uprising.
MORI ID: 17484

Contractor: H.A.M. Struik
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: University of Nijmegen, Netherlands
Years: 1958 ― 1960
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Human Ecology Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 83:
To support an editorial and technical survey of graphology, ESP, subliminal perception, hypnosis, truth serums, expressive movements and magic. Graphology Journal and Cover
MORI ID: 17485

Contractor: Employee of Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: ?
Years: 1958 ― 1960
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 84:
Study of the induction of high motivation in individuals by means of specific interpersonal relationships. Further to establish the limits of usefulness of hypnosis. Ultimate aim was improvement of agent assessment techniques.
MORI ID: 17486

Contractor: Marton Orne
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Harvard University
Years: 1960
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 85:
Establishing and substantiating “true identity” of individuals, either staff or agent, through the medium of blood groupings.
MORI ID: 17487

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Stanford University School of Medicine
Years: 1958 ― 1959
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Science Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 86:
design and build miniature polygraph machines and to study the feasibility of developing a polygraph for use on unwitting subjects.
MORI ID: 17488

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Stanford University
Years: 1958 ― 1959
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Willis A. Gibbons
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Science Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 87:
Further research on harassment techniques. This project was to investigate HyperAllergic (allergy-inducing) substances and to provide Technical Services Division with small quantities cf these substances. It was to support Technical Services Division’s “requirement to establish an offensive chemical toxicants capability.”
MORI ID: 17489

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: John Hopkins University
Years: 1956 ― 1966
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Ray Treichler
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Service Research Foundation, Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 88:
To develop a training package which would assist case officer to understand his and other cultures in order to enhance his agent-handling capabilities. – Cultural Appraisal
MORI ID: 17490

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: Princeton University
Years: 1958 ― 1959
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 89:
To determine the factors leading to the critical decision of certain Hungarian refugees in the United States to return to Hungary.
MORI ID: 17491

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, an experienced psychiatric case work.
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Years: 1958 ― 1959
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 90:
To study the scientist in BLACKEBLACKEDOUT to produce a descriptive model of the type likely to come in contact with Americans — and develop strategies for evaluating and influencing such scientists.
MORI ID: 17493

Contractor: A. J. Wiener (?)
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Years: 1958 ― 1959
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 91:
To perform pre-clinical pha~acology studies required to develop nevi psychochemicals and to test the promising drugs on animals.
MKULTRA MORI ID: 17494

Contractor: Bio-Research Inc.,Harris Isbell, Charles Geschickter, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT…
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: ?
Years: 1959 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Ray Treichler
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 92:
Research into the feasibility of adapting teaching machines to foreign language training.
MORI ID: 17495

Contractor: John Carol
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Harvard University
Years: 1959 ― 1960
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Human Ecology Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 93:
Study of bacterial and fungal toxins Study (Used in Cuba)
MORI ID: 17496

Contractor: Bio-Research Inc and Panoramic Research, Inc,
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: Unknown
Years: 1962
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 94:
“Investigations of the remote directional control of activities of selected species of animals.” Ultimate purpose was operational use of animals in delivery systems. Systems unspecified – could have included audio and/or photo devices (See 142 for assassination applications). (Implantation of miniaturized stimulating electrodes in specific brain center areas of animals – rats, donkeys, dogs.)
MORI ID: 17497

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Bio-Resedarch, Inc. and Panoramic Research Inc
Years: 1959 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation and Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 95:
Research in field of cross-cultural meaning systems (emphasis on semantics and communications) in support of agent handling problems and in technical supported political activities. Osgood-Western Psychological Assessment
MORI ID: 17498

Contractor: Charles Osgood
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Illinois
Years: 1959 ― 1962
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 96:
To secure data on European research attitudes and personality information on researchers. The problem of understanding human behavior. Decision Making-Group Interview Methods
MORI ID: 17499

Contractor: George Kelley
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Ohio State University
Years: 1959
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 97:
Process of personality change during psychotherapy. Focus upon schizophrenics with control composed of normal individuals. To provide certain techniques of influencing human behavior that might have significance to the Agency.
MORI ID: 17500

Contractor: Carl Rogers
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Wisconsin
Years: 1959
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Human Ecology Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 98:
Research on some Aspects of mass Conversion. A study into the mass psychology involved in brainwashing, mass defection, etc .
MORI ID: 17501

Contractor: Kurt Lang
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: Queen’s College
Years: 1959 ― 1960
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 99:
Services related to certain physical studies which are required to develop effective materials which will influence the central nervous system. Project also supported studies on the optical rotatory power of solid and liquid crystals.
MORI ID: 17502

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Pennsylvania State University
Years: 1959 ― 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 100:
Investigations into soil microorganisms and methods by which maximum information could be obtained from samples of soil. Purpose- detection of BLACKEBLACKEDOUTBLACKEDOUT BLACKEDOUT (CBW?)
MORI ID: 17356

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Pennsylvania State University
Years: 1959 ― 1964
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation, Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 101:
For consultative services on the biophysics of the central nervous system; probably on the storage and transfer of energy in organic systems.
MORI ID: 17357

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Ohio State University
Years: 1959
CIA Monitors: Robert V. Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and C.V.S. Roosevelt
MKULTRA Subproject 102:
Behavior of naturally formed groups of adolescent boys in Texas and Oklahoma as a function of group membership and environment.
MORI ID: 17358

Contractor: Muzafer Sherif
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: University of Oklahoma
Years: 1959 ― 1960
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 103:
Study in non-verbal communication to assess communications between 16-year old children at a reunion of those who had attended a Children’s International Summer Village at age 11.
MORI ID: 17359

Contractors: Robert Cornack and A.B. Kristofferson
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: Children’s International Summer Villages, Inc.
Years: 1959
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 104:
The study of the relationships between the twO principal classes of micro-organisms involved in the deterioration of petroleum products for possible use in petroleum sabotage.
MORI ID: 17360

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: SECRET
Location: University of Houston
Years: 1960 ― 1961
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 105:
To study virulent and non-virulent staphylococci, the varieties of toxins produced by the various staphylococci as well as the intensity will be determined as sub areas in this study. It is expected that the eventual goal of this investigation will be biochemical tests which will identify the organisms of interest. (CBW)
MORI ID: 17361

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUTProfessor of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin
Contractor’s Clearance: SECRET
Location: University of Wisconsin
Years: 1960 ― 1961
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 106:
To study biological systems with particular reference to quantifying the relationships between a stimulus (e.g.Electrodes) and the biological response to that stimulus.
MORI ID: 17362

Contractor: Resources Research, Inc.BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Years: 1959 ― 1960
CIA Monitors: Raymond Treichler and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Science Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 107:
Grant to American Psychological Association to support travel of selected psychologists to the BLACKEBLACKEDOUTBLACKEBLACKEDOUT. Establish contact with BLACK psychologists and learn state of the art of BLACK research.
MORI ID: 17363

Contractor: American Psychological Association
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Years: 1960
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 108:
Recruitment of BLAC as source on BLACKEBLACKEDOUT by using his study of behavioral characteristics of BLACKE Grant awarded to get BLACto become actively interested in establishing sources of information BLACBLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MORI ID: 17364

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: ?
Years: 1959 ― 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 109:
Study of potential psychopharmacological agents directed to the evaluation of interrelationships between molecular constitution and biological response. Purpose is to obtain data on biochemical ~characteristics of certain substance of interest to Technical Services Division. (CBW)
MORI ID: 17365

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: LOCATION
Years: 1960 ― 1965
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Ray Treichler
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund for Medical Research
MKULTRA Subproject 110:
To provide a source of exotic pathogens and a capability to incorporate them in effective delivery systems. Establish a production capability and a sufficient supply of material to be maintained in a ready state to meet anticipated requirements. (CBW)
MORI ID: 17367

Contractor: Bacteriological and Pharmaceutical Consultants, Inc.
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: ?
Years: 1960 ― 1964
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Ray Treichler, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: ?
MKULTRA Subproject 111:
To study levels of motivation as related to certain personality characteristics and contribute to Technical Services Division’s long term interest in indirect assessment. One of the factors in making this grant was “to lend prestige to the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, Inc., as a worldwide funding organization.”
MORI ID: 17368

Contractor: H.J. Eysenek
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: University of London, UK
Years: 1960 ― 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 112:
Children’s Conceptions of Occupational Roles and Status. Grant awarded to support Society for Investigation of Human Ecology’s cover. CIA interest was in its application to selection of technical and scientific careers. – Vocational Studies in Children
MORI ID: 17369

Contractor: Melvin DeFleur
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: University of Indiana
Years: NONE
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 113:
Experimentation related to design, manufacture and formulation of devices and systems utilizing gas propelled sprays and aerosols.
MORI ID: 17370

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: ?
Years: 1960 ― 1963
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Raymond Treichler
MKULTRA Subproject 114:
Continue Dr. York’s study on predictability of behavior during social alcohol (and possibly LSD) drinking and to develop behavioral rating scales which relate directly to the underlying motivation in human behavior.
MORI ID: 17371

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: COVERT
Location: Butler Hospital and Health Center
Years: 1960 ― 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society to Investigate Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 115:
Study of the interaction between the mentally disturbed and their environment. To gain further insight into additional factors which may influence human behavior and to achieve further development of the world-wide activities of the Human Ecology fund.
MORI ID: 17372

Contractor: Eric Allardt and Juhani Mirvas
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: University of Helsinki, Finland
Years: 1960
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Society to Investigate Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 116:
To utilize the services of BLACKEBLACKEDOUT for Covert procurement of special biologically active chemicals and other products. Further to arrange for the covert production of special sensitive organic compounds.
MORI ID: 17373

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1960 ― 1964
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Raymond Treichler
MKULTRA Subproject 117:
Cross-cultural studies of family structure and personality development.
MORI ID: 17374

Contractor: National Institute of Health
BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Cornell University
Years: 1960
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 118:
To provide the consulting services of a microbiologist for the Biological Warfare/Chemical Warfare detection program.
MORI ID: 17375

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: COVERT
Location: Pennsylvania State University
Years: 1960
CIA Monitor: Raymond Treichler and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 119:
Activation of human behavior by remote means. A review of literature and scientific developments related to the recording, analysis and interpretation of bioelectric signal from the human organism.
MORI ID: 17376

Contractor: Saul Sells
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: Texas Christian University
Years: 1960
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
Subproject 120:
Establish laboratory procedures for testing the effects of drugs on the central nervous systems of animals .
MORI ID: 17378

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Years: 1960 ― 1966
CIA Monitor: Ray Treichler and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 121:
Yoruba witchcraft study – African Witch Doctor study. Probably a cover for recruitment of promising young Nigerians.
MORI ID: 17379

Contractor:Raymond Prince
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Years: 1960 ― 1963
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 122:
To prepare and characterize highly purified NEUROKININ. Neurokinin is presumed to be a major medicator in the stress re~ction. Further to study the physiological and pathological significance of neurokinin.
MORI ID: 17380

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Years: 1960
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 123:
Investigation of Emerging BLACKEDOUT images. Study expected to add to our knowledge of how BLACK in different social strata are reacting to various stages of independence. (African Attitude Study)
MORI ID: 17381

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: Columbia University
Years: 1960 ― 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 124: (See 2 and 140)
Investigate the possibility of inducing a drug-like state through the simple expedient of carbon
dioxide inhalation.
MORI ID: 17382

Contractor: James Hamilton
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: St. Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco
Years: 1960 ― 1965
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Human Ecology Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 125:
Study at the Veterans Administration Center in Martinsburg, West Virginia, studying differential effects of drugs on behavior. The drug was d-amphetamine and the dose level was 10 mg.
MORI ID: 17383

Contractor: American Psychological Association, National Institute of Health, Veterans Adminsitration CenterBLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Veterans Administration Center, Martinsburg, West Virginia
Years: 1960 ― 1963
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 126:
Human adaptation to disaster: response to stress and crisis. Results could increase sophistication of CIA’s BLACKEBLACKEDOUT mission.
MORI ID: 17384

Contractor: Charles Fritz
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: University of Florida, National Research Council
Years: 1960
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 127:
A study of the open voting records of a selected group of BLACK voters over a 50 year period.
Anticipated results could contribute BLACKEBLACKEDOUTBLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MORI ID: 17385

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: ?
Years: 1950 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Robert Lashbrook, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 128:
To test a method of rapid hypnotic induction in simulated and real operational settings.
MORI ID: 17386

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: ?
Years: 1960 ― 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 129:
Computer analysis of bioelectric response pattern significance for polygraph.
MORI ID: 17387

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: George Washington University, Leler University of Georgia
Years: 1960 ― 1961
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 130:
Investigation of Personality Theory on patients with different symptoms: indirect
assessment.
MORI ID: 17389

Contractor: William Thetford
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Columbia University
Years: 1961 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 131:
Pay salaries, travel and other expenses of deep cover staff agent in BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MORI ID: 17390

Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 132:
“Realistic tests of certain R&D items of interest to TSD/CB (Technical Services Division/Chemical Branch), including a facility and personnel for the operational testing with complete non-attributability of sponsors.”
MORI ID: 17391

Contractor: Bureau of Narcotics
BLACKEBLACKEDOUT NOT George White (Morgan Hall)
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: New York and Chicago
Years: 1961 ― 1964
CIA Monitors: Sidney Gottlieb, Ray Treichler, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: ?
MKULTRA Subproject 133:
(1) Information on the microbiological participation in mineral transformation: mineral transforming microorganisms. (2) Grant renewed to research for new and unique approaches to energy production and transformation (bio-batteries).
MORI ID: 17392

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1961 ― 1963
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Ray Treichler, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Foundation and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 134:
Study of relationships between body type and temperament (personality characteristics) for the purpose clandestine indirect assessment.
MORI ID: 17393

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Years: 1961 ― 1963
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Human Ecology Fund ·
MKULTRA Subproject 135:
Research program involving the clinical testing of biologically active materials, which could be administered transdermally (through the skin) using human volunteer subjects. This project was cancelled before it got underway and monies authorized were transferred to Sub-Project 91.
MORI ID: 17394

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1961
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 136:
ESP Research – Experimental analysis of extrasensory perception. To evaluate the possibility of using extrasensory perception in the intelligence field.
MORI ID: 17395

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1961
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 137: Handwriting Analysis – Complete an illustrated psycho-lexicon of writing and the written word. (This study on graphology was then 80% complete, and was later published with acknowledgement of the Society for Investigation of Human Ecology support. Possibly Dr. Klare G Toman – HEF-Handwriting Psycholexicon-Graphology (?)
MORI ID: 17396

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1961 ― 1963
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Society for Investigation of Human Ecology
MKULTRA Subproject 138:
Research on biomedical instrumentation To develop a capability for remote testing (Polygraph,
EKG, etc.) for use in indirect psychological and medical assessments.
MORI ID: 17397

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting
Location: University of Texas at Austin
Years: 1961 ― 1962
CIA Monitors: Ray Treichler, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund, Medical Science Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 139:
Role of avian (Bird Disease) vectors in transmission of disease. Purpose: Support facility for BLACKEBLACKEDOUTBLACKEDOUT. (BW/CW)
MORI ID: 17398

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: Cleared (not specified)
Location: Pennsylvania State University
Years: 1961 ― 1965
CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Ray Treichler, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund, Medical Science Research Foundation
MKULTRA Subproject 140: (See 2 and 124)
Under cover of “Thyroid Research” the project was to design and conduct controlled experiments involving pharmacological and clinical tests on human volunteers.
MORI ID: 17400

Contractor: James Hamilton
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: St. Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco
Years: 1962 ― 1965
CIA Monitors: Ray Treichler, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 141:
Not specified.
MORI ID: 17401

Contractor:Dr. Geschickter
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: Washington, D.C.
Years: 1962
CIA Monitor: Ray Treichler
Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 142:
Biological studies involving electrical brain stimulation of cold-blooded animals. “Some of the uses proposed for these particular animals would involve possible delivery systems for BW/CW agents or for direct executive action-type operations as distinguished from the eavesdropping application.

NOTE: BW = BioweaponCW = Chemical weaponExecutive Action = Assassination
MORI ID: 17402

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1963 ― 1965
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Cover/Cut-out: Human Ecology Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 143:
To determine if the growth of microorganisms in petroleum products can be markedly increased by the addition of substatic concentrations of anti-microbial agents. May have wide application to all areas of biological sabotage.
MORI ID: 17403

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: University of Houston
Years: 1963 ― 1964
CIA Monitors: Ray Treichler, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and Sidney Gottlieb
Cover/Cut-out: Geshickter Fund
MKULTRA Subproject 144:
Unknown
MORI ID: 17404

Contractor: Unknown
Contractor’s Clearance: Unknown
Location: Unknown
Years: 1963
CIA Monitor: Ray Treichler
Cover/Cut-out: Unknown
MKULTRA Subproject 145:
Unknown
MORI ID: 17405

Contractor: Unknown
Contractor’s Clearance: Unknown
Location: Unknown
Years: 1963
CIA Monitor: Ray Treichler
Cover/Cut-out: Unknown
MKULTRA Subproject 146:
Provide the services of a plant pathologist to assist in developing a philosophy of limited anticrop warfare. A study was made of sugar cane crop vulnerabilities, on a world-wide basis.
MORI ID: 17406

Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1963 ― 1954
CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Sidney Gottlieb, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
MKULTRA Subproject 147:
Cross-tolerance between psychomimetic drug.
MORI ID: 17407

Contractor: Harris Isbell and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Contractor’s Clearance: ?
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1963 ― 1964
CIA Monitor: Ray Treichler
MKULTRA Subproject 148:
To provide a mechanism to utilize the services of BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, a recognized authority in the field of toxicology and pharmacology in support of Technical Services Division activity concerned with influencing animal and human behavior.
MORI ID: 17408

Contractors: Harold Hodge
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT
Years: 1963 ― 1964
CIA Monitor: Ray Treichler
MKULTRA Subproject 149: (See 3, 16, and 42)
Support covert and realistic field tests on certain R&D items of interest to Technical Services Division/Biological Branch.
MORI ID: 17409

Contractor: George White
Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET
Location: New York City
Years: 1964 ― 1966
CIA Monitors: Ray Treichler and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT

Sources
MKULTRA Briefing Book – Brief summaries of each of the 149 MKULTRA subprojects

MKULTRA Institutional Notifications (MORI ID: 20476) – Includes MKSEARCH, BLUEBIRD, and ARTICHOKE Institutional Notifications

MKULTRA Document Index (for search terms “mkultra” and “behavioral research”)
The Black Vault

MKULTRA FOIA Collection
The Black Vault

The CIA Doctors: Human Rights Violations by American Psychiatrists
by Colin A. Ross

TAGSCIAMKULTRA

Illuminati Rex

Tom A. Hidell likes to research conspiracy, write conspiracy and talk conspiracy. His current interests include the Bavarian Illuminati, the Illuminati and the New World Order.

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III. PROJECT MKIULTRA, THE CIA’S PROGRAM OF RESEARCH IN BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION (1977 Senate hearings, pdf)

IV. The Brutal Reality of MKULTRA CIA Evil Agenda

V. Project MKULTRA

File:DeclassifiedMKULTRA.jpg. Declassified MKULTRA documents. Project MK-ULTRA, or MKULTRA, was the code name for a covert CIA mind-control and chemical interrogation research program, run by the Office of Scientific Intelligence.The program began in the early 1950s, continuing at least through the late 1960s, and it used United States citizens as its test subjects.

VI. 20 Declassified Files that Prove Governmental Crime and Conspiracy – Part 1

MK Ultra was so large it had 149 sub-projects. By 1953, the emphasis of MK Ultra was LSD (see below), but by the 1960s, this had changed into biological radio communications. Helms later destroyed much of the MK Ultra archive when he left in 1972, but some declassified files remain. Declassified Files: Operation Midnight Climax

VII. Mind Control Documents & Links – proof mk-ultra exists

This page includes information on mk-ultra, the CIA, mind control, Operation Paperclip and the Nazis, the 1995 congressional hearings, the 2010 veterans vs CIA court case, Artichoke, the CIA Supreme Court cases, Ewen Cameron and the Sleep Room and the MK/Naomi project.

VIII. Wikipedia: Project MKUltra

“MKULTRA” redirects here. For other uses, see MKULTRA (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Edgewood Arsenal human experiments.

Declassified MKUltra documents

Project MKUltra (or MK-Ultra) is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects that were designed and undertaken by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), some of which were illegal.[1][2][3] Experiments on humans were intended to develop procedures and identify drugs such as LSD to be used in interrogations in order to weaken the individual and force confessions through brainwashing and psychological torture. The project was organized through the Office of Scientific Intelligence of the CIA and coordinated with the United States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories.[4] Other code names for drug-related experiments were Project Bluebird and Project Artichoke.[5][6]

The operation was officially sanctioned in 1953, reduced in scope in 1964 and further curtailed in 1967. It was officially halted in 1973. The program also engaged in illegal activities,[7][8][9] including the use of U.S. and Canadian citizens as its unwitting test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy.[7](p74)[10][11][12] MKUltra used numerous methods to manipulate its subjects’ mental states and brain functions. Techniques included the covert administration of high doses of psychoactive drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, electroshocks,[13] hypnosis,[14][15] sensory deprivation, isolation, and verbal and sexual abuse, in addition to other forms of torture.[16][17]

The scope of Project MKUltra was broad, with activities carried out under the guise of research at more than 80 institutions, including colleges and universities, hospitals, prisons, and pharmaceutical companies.[18] The CIA operated using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA’s involvement.[19]

Project MKUltra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church Committee of the United States Congress and Gerald Ford’s United States President’s Commission on CIA activities within the United States (also known as the Rockefeller Commission).

Investigative efforts were hampered by CIA Director Richard Helms’s order that all MKUltra files be destroyed in 1973; the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the sworn testimony of direct participants and on the relatively small number of documents that survived Helms’s destruction order.[20] In 1977, a Freedom of Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000 documents relating to project MKUltra which led to Senate hearings later that year.[7][21] Some surviving information regarding MKUltra was declassified in July 2001. In December 2018, declassified documents included a letter to an unidentified doctor discussing work on six dogs made to run, turn and stop via remote control and brain implants.[22][23]

Contents

1 Background
1.1 Origin of cryptonym
1.2 Origin of project
1.3 Aims and leadership
1.4 Scale of project
1.5 Applications
1.6 Other related projects
2 Experiments on Americans
2.1 LSD
2.2 Other drugs
2.3 Hypnosis
3 Experiments on Canadians
3.1 Motivation and assessments
4 Secret detention camps
5 Revelation
5.1 1994 U.S. General Accounting Office report
6 Deaths
7 Legal issues involving informed consent
8 Notable people
9 Aftermath
10 In popular culture
10.1 Films
10.2 Television
10.3 Audio
10.4 Others
11 See also
12 References
13 Further reading
14 External links
Background

Sidney Gottlieb approved of an MKUltra sub-project on LSD in this June 9, 1953, letter.

Origin of cryptonym

The project’s CIA cryptonym is a combination of the digraph MK, indicating the sponsorship of the Technical Services Staff (TSS), and the word Ultra which formerly designated the most secret classification of World War II intelligence. Other related cryptonyms include Project MKNAOMI and Project MKDELTA.

Origin of project

According to author Stephen Kinzer, the CIA project “was a continuation of the work begun in WWII-era Japanese facilities and Nazi concentration camps on subduing and controlling human minds”. Kinzer wrote that MKUltra’s use of mescaline on unwitting subjects was a practice that Nazi doctors had begun in the Dachau concentration camp. Kinzer proposes evidence of the continuation of a Nazi agenda, citing the CIA’s secret recruitment of Nazi torturers and vivisectionists to continue the experimentation on thousands of subjects, and Nazis brought to Fort Detrick, Maryland, to instruct CIA officers on the lethal uses of sarin gas.[13]

Aims and leadership

Sidney Gottlieb, Sept. 21, 1977

The project was headed by Sidney Gottlieb but began on the order of CIA director Allen Dulles on April 13, 1953.[24][25] Its aim was to develop mind-controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war during the Korean War.[26] The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives, and was interested in manipulating foreign leaders with such techniques,[27] devising several schemes to drug Fidel Castro. It often conducted experiments without the subjects’ knowledge or consent.[28] In some cases, academic researchers were funded through grants from CIA front organizations but were unaware that the CIA was using their work for these purposes.[29]

The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and to explore other possibilities of mind control. Subproject 54 was the Navy’s top-secret “Perfect Concussion” program, which was supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory; the program was never carried out.[30]

Most MKUltra records were destroyed in 1973 by order of CIA director Richard Helms, so it has been difficult for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 funded research subprojects sponsored by MKUltra and related CIA programs.[31]

The project began during a period of what English journalist Rupert Cornwell described as “paranoia” at the CIA, when the U.S. had lost its nuclear monopoly and fear of communism was at its height.[32] CIA counter-intelligence chief James Jesus Angleton believed that a mole had penetrated the organization at the highest levels.[32] The agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining ways to influence and control the mind and to enhance its ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation.[33][34] Some historians assert that one goal of MKUltra and related CIA projects was to create a “Manchurian Candidate”-style subject.[35] American historian Alfred W. McCoy has claimed that the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of “ridiculous” programs so that the public would not look at the research’s primary goal, which was effective methods of interrogation.[33]

Scale of project

One 1955 MKUltra document gives an indication of the size and range of the effort. It refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances described as follows:[36]

Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.
Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.
Materials which will prevent or counteract the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so they may be used for malingering, etc.
Materials which will render the induction of hypnosis easier or otherwise enhance its usefulness.
Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture, and coercion during interrogation and so-called “brain-washing”.
Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.
Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.
Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.
Substances which will produce “pure” euphoria with no subsequent let-down.
Substances which alter personality structure in such a way the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.
A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.
Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.
Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.
A knockout pill which can be surreptitiously administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.
A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a person to perform physical activity.
Applications
The 1976 Church Committee report found that, in the MKDELTA program, “Drugs were used primarily as an aid to interrogations, but MKULTRA/MKDELTA materials were also used for harassment, discrediting or disabling purposes.”[37][38][39]

Other related projects

In 1964, MKSEARCH was the name given to the continuation of the MKULTRA program. The MKSEARCH program was divided into two projects dubbed MKOFTEN and MKCHICKWIT. Funding for MKSEARCH commenced in 1965, and ended in 1971.[40] The project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Chemical Corps and the CIA’s Office of Research and Development to find new offensive-use agents, with a focus on incapacitating agents. Its purpose was to develop, test, and evaluate capabilities in the covert use of biological, chemical, and radioactive material systems and techniques of producing predictable human behavioral and/or physiological changes in support of highly sensitive operational requirements.[40]

By March 1971 over 26,000 potential agents had been acquired for future screening.[41] The CIA was interested in bird migration patterns for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) research; subproject 139 designated “Bird Disease Studies” at Penn State.[42]

MKOFTEN was to deal with testing and toxicological transmissivity and behavioral effects of drugs in animals and, ultimately, humans.[40]

MKCHICKWIT was concerned with acquiring information on new drug developments in Europe and Asia, and with acquiring samples.[40]

Experiments on Americans

CIA documents suggest that they investigated “chemical, biological, and radiological” methods of mind control as part of MKUltra.[43] They spent an estimated $10 million or more, roughly $87.5 million adjusted for inflation.[44]

LSD

Early CIA efforts focused on LSD-25, which later came to dominate many of MKUltra’s programs.[45] The CIA wanted to know if they could make Soviet spies defect against their will and whether the Soviets could do the same to the CIA’s own operatives.[46]

Once Project MKUltra got underway in April 1953, experiments included administering LSD to mental patients, prisoners, drug addicts, and sex workers – “people who could not fight back,” as one agency officer put it.[47] In one case, they administered LSD to a mental patient in Kentucky for 174 days.[47] They also administered LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, and members of the general public to study their reactions. LSD and other drugs were often administered without the subject’s knowledge or informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code the U.S. had agreed to follow after World War II. The aim of this was to find drugs which would bring out deep confessions or wipe a subject’s mind clean and program them as “a robot agent.”[48]

In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels within agency safehouses in San Francisco to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors, and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study.[49] In other experiments where people were given LSD without their knowledge, they were interrogated under bright lights with doctors in the background taking notes. They told subjects they would extend their “trips” if they refused to reveal their secrets. The people under this interrogation were CIA employees, U.S. military personnel, and agents suspected of working for the other side in the Cold War. Long-term debilitation and several deaths resulted from this.[48] Heroin addicts were bribed into taking LSD with offers of more heroin.[19][50]

At the invitation of Stanford psychology graduate student Vik Lovell, an acquaintance of Richard Alpert and Allen Ginsberg, Ken Kesey volunteered to take part in what turned out to be a CIA-financed study under the aegis of MKUltra,[51] at the Menlo Park Veterans’ Hospital[52][53] where he worked as a night aide.[54] The project studied the effects of psychoactive drugs, particularly LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, cocaine, AMT and DMT on people.[55]

The Office of Security used LSD in interrogations, but Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the chemist who directed MKUltra, had other ideas: he thought it could be used in covert operations. Since its effects were temporary, he believed it could be given to high-ranking officials and in this way affect the course of important meetings, speeches, etc. Since he realized there was a difference in testing the drug in a laboratory and using it in clandestine operations, he initiated a series of experiments where LSD was given to people in “normal” settings without warning. At first, everyone in Technical Services tried it; a typical experiment involved two people in a room where they observed each other for hours and took notes. As the experimentation progressed, a point arrived where outsiders were drugged with no explanation whatsoever and surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives. Adverse reactions often occurred, such as an operative who received the drug in his morning coffee, became psychotic and ran across Washington, seeing a monster in every car passing him. The experiments continued even after Frank Olson, an army chemist who had never taken LSD, was covertly dosed by his CIA supervisor and nine days later plunged to his death from the window of a 13th-story New York City hotel room, supposedly as a result of deep depression induced by the drug.[56] According to Stephen Kinzer, Olson had approached his superiors some time earlier, doubting the morality of the project, and asked to resign from the CIA.[57]

Some subjects’ participation was consensual, and in these cases they appeared to be singled out for even more extreme experiments. In one case, seven volunteers in Kentucky were given LSD for seventy-seven consecutive days.[58]

MKUltra’s researchers later dismissed LSD as too unpredictable in its results.[59] They gave up on the notion that LSD was “the secret that was going to unlock the universe,” but it still had a place in the cloak-and-dagger arsenal. However, by 1962 the CIA and the army developed a series of super-hallucinogens such as the highly touted BZ, which was thought to hold greater promise as a mind control weapon. This resulted in the withdrawal of support by many academics and private researchers, and LSD research became less of a priority altogether.[56]

Other drugs

Another technique investigated was the intravenous administration of a barbiturate into one arm and an amphetamine into the other.[60] The barbiturates were released into the person first, and as soon as the person began to fall asleep, the amphetamines were released. The person would begin babbling incoherently, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful answers.

Other experiments involved heroin, morphine, temazepam (used under code name MKSEARCH), mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, alcohol and sodium pentothal.[61]

Hypnosis

Declassified MKUltra documents indicate they studied hypnosis in the early 1950s. Experimental goals included creating “hypnotically induced anxieties”, “hypnotically increasing ability to learn and recall complex written matter”, studying hypnosis and polygraph examinations, “hypnotically increasing ability to observe and recall complex arrangements of physical objects”, and studying “relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis”[62] They conducted experiments with drug-induced hypnosis and with anterograde and retrograde amnesia while under the influence of such drugs.

Experiments on Canadians

Donald Ewen Cameron c. 1967

The CIA exported experiments to Canada when they recruited British psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron, creator of the “psychic driving” concept, which the CIA found interesting. Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing memories and reprogramming the psyche. He commuted from Albany, New York to Montreal every week to work at the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University, and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 (which would be US$579,480 in 2021, adjusting for inflation) to carry out MKUltra experiments there, the Montreal experiments. These research funds were sent to Cameron by a CIA front organization, the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, and as shown in internal CIA documents, Cameron did not know the money came from the CIA.[63](pp141–142)

In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well as electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal power. His “driving” experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced comas for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were often carried out on patients who entered the institute for common problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum depression, many of whom suffered permanent effects from his actions.[63](pp140–150) His treatments resulted in victims’ urinary incontinence, amnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents and thinking their interrogators were their parents.[64]

During this era, Cameron became known worldwide as the first chairman of the World Psychiatric Association as well as president of both the American Psychiatric Association and the Canadian Psychiatric Association. Cameron was also a member of the Nuremberg medical tribunal in 1946–1947.[63](p141)

Motivation and assessments

His work was inspired and paralleled by the British psychiatrist William Sargant at St Thomas’ Hospital, London, and Belmont Hospital, Sutton, who was also involved in the Secret Intelligence Service and who experimented on his patients without their consent, causing similar long-term damage.[65]

In the 1980s, several of Cameron’s former patients sued the CIA for damages, which the Canadian news program The Fifth Estate documented.[66] Their experiences and lawsuit was made into a 1998 television miniseries called The Sleep Room.[67]

Naomi Klein argues in her book The Shock Doctrine that Cameron’s research and his contribution to the MKUltra project was not about mind control and brainwashing, but about designing “a scientifically based system for extracting information from ‘resistant sources’. In other words, torture.”[68]

Alfred W. McCoy writes, “Stripped of its bizarre excesses, Dr. Cameron’s experiments, building upon Donald O. Hebb’s earlier breakthrough, laid the scientific foundation for the CIA’s two-stage psychological torture method”,[69] referring to first creating a state of disorientation in the subject, and then creating a situation of “self-inflicted” discomfort in which the disoriented subject can alleviate their pain by capitulating.[69]

Secret detention camps

In areas under American control in the early 1950s in Europe and East Asia, mostly Japan, Germany and the Philippines, the CIA created secret detention centers so that the U.S. could avoid criminal prosecution. The CIA captured people suspected of being enemy agents and other people it deemed “expendable” to undertake various types of torture and human experimentation on them. The prisoners were interrogated while being administered psychoactive drugs, electroshocked and subjected to extremes of temperature, sensory isolation and the like to develop a better understanding of how to destroy and to control human minds.[13]

Revelation

Frank Church headed the Church Committee, an investigation into the practices of the U.S. intelligence agencies.

In 1973, amid a government-wide panic caused by Watergate, CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed.[70] Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MKUltra impossible. A cache of some 20,000 documents survived Helms’s purge, as they had been incorrectly stored in a financial records building and were discovered following a FOIA request in 1977. These documents were fully investigated during the Senate Hearings of 1977.[7]

In December 1974, The New York Times alleged that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s.[71] That report prompted investigations by the United States Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that looked into the illegal domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI and intelligence-related agencies of the military.

In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defense had conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects as part of an extensive program to find out how to influence and control human behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means. They also revealed that at least one subject, Frank Olson, had died after administration of LSD. Much of what the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission learned about MKUltra was contained in a report, prepared by the Inspector General’s office in 1963, that had survived the destruction of records ordered in 1973.[72] However, it contained little detail. Sidney Gottlieb, who had retired from the CIA two years previously and had headed MKUltra, was interviewed by the committee but claimed to have very little recollection of the activities of MKUltra.[18]

The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that “prior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects”. The committee noted that the “experiments sponsored by these researchers … call into question the decision by the agencies not to fix guidelines for experiments.”

Following the recommendations of the Church Committee, President Gerald Ford in 1976 issued the first Executive Order on Intelligence Activities which, among other things, prohibited “experimentation with drugs on human subjects, except with the informed consent, in writing and witnessed by a disinterested party, of each such human subject” and in accordance with the guidelines issued by the National Commission. Subsequent orders by Presidents Carter and Reagan expanded the directive to apply to any human experimentation.

1977 United States Senate report on MKUltra

In 1977, during a hearing held by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, to look further into MKUltra, Admiral Stansfield Turner, then Director of Central Intelligence, revealed that the CIA had found a set of records, consisting of about 20,000 pages,[73] that had survived the 1973 destruction orders because they had been incorrectly stored at a records center not usually used for such documents.[72] These files dealt with the financing of MKUltra projects and contained few project details, but much more was learned from them than from the Inspector General’s 1963 report.

On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:

The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an “extensive testing and experimentation” program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens “at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign.” Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to “unwitting subjects in social situations.[This quote needs a citation]

At least one death, the result of the alleged defenestration of Dr. Frank Olson, was attributed to Olson’s being subjected, unaware, to such experimentation, nine days before his death.[citation needed] The CIA itself subsequently acknowledged that these tests had little scientific rationale. The agents conducting the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.[74][75]

In Canada, the issue took much longer to surface, becoming widely known in 1984 on a CBC news show, The Fifth Estate. It was learned that not only had the CIA funded Dr. Cameron’s efforts, but also that the Canadian government was fully aware of this, and had later provided another $500,000 in funding to continue the experiments. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims to sue the CIA as their U.S. counterparts had, and the Canadian government eventually settled out of court for $100,000 to each of the 127 victims. Dr. Cameron died on September 8, 1967, after suffering a heart attack while he and his son were mountain climbing. None of Cameron’s personal records of his involvement with MKUltra survived because his family destroyed them after his death.[76][77]

1994 U.S. General Accounting Office report
The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.

The quote from the study:[78]

Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of “volunteer” soldiers in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKULTRA program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects

Deaths

Given the CIA’s purposeful destruction of most records, its failure to follow informed consent protocols with thousands of participants, the uncontrolled nature of the experiments, and the lack of follow-up data, the full impact of MKUltra experiments, including deaths, may never be known.[31][36][78][79]

Several known deaths have been associated with Project MKUltra, most notably that of Frank Olson. Olson, a United States Army biochemist and biological weapons researcher, was given LSD without his knowledge or consent in November 1953, as part of a CIA experiment, and died by suicide by jumping out of a 13th-story window a week later. A CIA doctor assigned to monitor Olson claimed to have been asleep in another bed in a New York City hotel room when Olson fell to his death. In 1953, Olson’s death was described as a suicide that had occurred during a severe psychotic episode. The CIA’s own internal investigation concluded that the head of MKUltra, CIA chemist Sidney Gottlieb, had conducted the LSD experiment with Olson’s prior knowledge, although neither Olson nor the other men taking part in the experiment were informed as to the exact nature of the drug until some 20 minutes after its ingestion. The report further suggested that Gottlieb was nonetheless due a reprimand, as he had failed to take into account Olson’s already-diagnosed suicidal tendencies, which might have been exacerbated by the LSD.[80]

The Olson family disputes the official version of events. They maintain that Frank Olson was murdered because, especially in the aftermath of his LSD experience, he had become a security risk who might divulge state secrets associated with highly classified CIA programs, about many of which he had direct personal knowledge.[81] A few days before his death, Frank Olson quit his position as acting chief of the Special Operations Division at Detrick, Maryland (later Fort Detrick) because of a severe moral crisis concerning the nature of his biological weapons research. Among Olson’s concerns were the development of assassination materials used by the CIA, the CIA’s use of biological warfare materials in covert operations, experimentation with biological weapons in populated areas, collaboration with former scientists under Operation Paperclip, LSD mind-control research, and the use of psychoactive drugs during “terminal” interrogations under a program code-named Project ARTICHOKE.[82] Later forensic evidence conflicted with the official version of events; when Olson’s body was exhumed in 1994, cranial injuries indicated that Olson had been knocked unconscious before he exited the window.[80] The medical examiner termed Olson’s death a “homicide”.[83] In 1975, Olson’s family received a $750,000 settlement from the U.S. government and formal apologies from President Gerald Ford and CIA Director William Colby, though their apologies were limited to informed consent issues concerning Olson’s ingestion of LSD.[79] On 28 November 2012, the Olson family filed suit against the U.S. federal government for the wrongful death of Frank Olson.[84] The case was dismissed in July 2013, due in part to the 1976 settlement between the family and government.[85] In the decision dismissing the suit, U.S. District Judge James Boasberg wrote, “While the court must limit its analysis to the four corners of the complaint, the skeptical reader may wish to know that the public record supports many of the allegations [in the family’s suit], farfetched as they may sound.”[86]

A 2010 book by H. P. Albarelli Jr. alleged that the 1951 Pont-Saint-Esprit mass poisoning was part of MKDELTA, that Olson was involved in that event, and that he was eventually murdered by the CIA.[87][88] However, academic sources attribute the incident to ergot poisoning through a local bakery.[89][90][91]

Legal issues involving informed consent

The revelations about the CIA and the army prompted a number of subjects or their survivors to file lawsuits against the federal government for conducting experiments without informed consent. Although the government aggressively, and sometimes successfully, sought to avoid legal liability, several plaintiffs did receive compensation through court order, out-of-court settlement, or acts of Congress. Frank Olson’s family received $750,000 by a special act of Congress, and both President Ford and CIA director William Colby met with Olson’s family to apologize publicly.

Previously, the CIA and the army had actively and successfully sought to withhold incriminating information, even as they secretly provided compensation to the families. One subject of army drug experimentation, James Stanley, an army sergeant, brought an important, albeit unsuccessful, suit. The government argued that Stanley was barred from suing under the Feres doctrine.

In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed this defense in a 5–4 decision that dismissed Stanley’s case: United States v. Stanley.[92] The majority argued that “a test for liability that depends on the extent to which particular suits would call into question military discipline and decision making would itself require judicial inquiry into, and hence intrusion upon, military matters.” In dissent, Justice William Brennan argued that the need to preserve military discipline should not protect the government from liability and punishment for serious violations of constitutional rights:

The medical trials at Nuremberg in 1947 deeply impressed upon the world that experimentation with unknowing human subjects is morally and legally unacceptable. The United States Military Tribunal established the Nuremberg Code as a standard against which to judge German scientists who experimented with human subjects…. [I]n defiance of this principle, military intelligence officials … began surreptitiously testing chemical and biological materials, including LSD.

Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, writing a separate dissent, stated:

No judicially crafted rule should insulate from liability the involuntary and unknowing human experimentation alleged to have occurred in this case. Indeed, as Justice Brennan observes, the United States played an instrumental role in the criminal prosecution of Nazi officials who experimented with human subjects during the Second World War, and the standards that the Nuremberg Military Tribunals developed to judge the behavior of the defendants stated that the ‘voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential … to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts.’ If this principle is violated, the very least that society can do is to see that the victims are compensated, as best they can be, by the perpetrators.

In another lawsuit, Wayne Ritchie, a former United States Marshal, after hearing about the project’s existence in 1990, alleged the CIA laced his food or drink with LSD at a 1957 Christmas party which resulted in his attempting to commit a robbery at a bar and his subsequent arrest. While the government admitted it was, at that time, drugging people without their consent, U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel found Ritchie could not prove he was one of the victims of MKUltra or that LSD caused his robbery attempt and dismissed the case in 2005.[93][94]

Notable people
Experimenters

Harold Alexander Abramson
Donald Ewen Cameron
Sidney Gottlieb
Harris Isbell[21]
Louis Jolyon West
Martin Theodore Orne

Documented subjects

American poet Allen Ginsberg first took LSD in an experiment on Stanford University’s campus where he could listen to records of his choice (he chose a Gertrude Stein reading, a Tibetan mandala, and Wagner). He said the experience resulted in “a slight paranoia that hung on all my acid experiences through the mid-1960s until I learned from meditation how to disperse that.”[95] He became an outspoken advocate for psychedelics in the 1960s and, after hearing suspicions that the experiment was CIA-funded, wrote, “Am I, Allen Ginsberg, the product one of the CIA’s lamentable, ill-advised, or triumphantly successful experiments in mind control?”[96]

Ken Kesey, author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, is said to have volunteered for MKUltra experiments involving LSD and other psychedelic drugs at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Menlo Park while he was a student at nearby Stanford University. Kesey’s experiences while under the influence of LSD inspired him to promote the drug outside the context of the MKUltra experiments, which influenced the early development of hippie culture.[97][55]
Robert Hunter was an American lyricist, singer-songwriter, translator, and poet, best known for his association with Jerry Garcia and the Grateful Dead. Along with Ken Kesey, Hunter was said to be an early volunteer MKUltra test subject at Stanford University. Stanford test subjects were paid to take LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline, then report on their experiences. These experiences were creatively formative for Hunter:

Sit back picture yourself swooping up a shell of purple with foam crests of crystal drops soft nigh they fall unto the sea of morning creep-very-softly mist … and then sort of cascade tinkley-bell-like (must I take you by the hand, ever so slowly type) and then conglomerate suddenly into a peal of silver vibrant uncomprehendingly, blood singingly, joyously resounding bells … By my faith if this be insanity, then for the love of God permit me to remain insane.[98]

Boston mobster James “Whitey” Bulger alleged he had been subjected to weekly injections of LSD and subsequent testing while in prison in Atlanta in 1957.[99][100]
Alleged subjects

Ted Kaczynski, an American domestic terrorist known as the Unabomber, was said to be a subject of a voluntary psychological study alleged by some sources to have been a part of MKUltra.[101][102][103] As a sophomore at Harvard, Kaczynski participated in a study described by author Alston Chase as a “purposely brutalizing psychological experiment”, led by Harvard psychologist Henry Murray.[104][105] In total, Kaczynski spent 200 hours as part of the study.[106]

Lawrence Teeter was the attorney for Sirhan Sirhan who was convicted of murdering Robert F. Kennedy, and he believed that Sirhan was “operating under MK-ULTRA mind control techniques”.[107]

Aftermath

After retiring in 1972, Gottlieb dismissed his entire effort for the CIA’s MKUltra program as useless.[32][108] The CIA insists that MKUltra-type experiments have been abandoned.

In popular culture

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject’s impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources, rather than simply listing appearances. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2019)

MKUltra plays a part in many conspiracy theories due to its nature and the destruction of most records.[109]

Films

1963 film The Mind Benders depicts the investigation of sensory deprivation by intelligence agencies for use in extracting information via torture, i.e. sensory deprivation.
1990 film Jacob’s Ladder alludes to Project MKUltra throughout the movie.
1997 film Conspiracy Theory Project MKUltra is referred to by Dr. Jonas (Patrick Stewart) who says he headed the project. Also, the protagonist, Jerry (Mel Gibson) is reported by Dr. Jonas to be a test subject of Project MKUltra.
2006 film Shadow Man starring Steven Seagal has a plot that revolves around a (fictional) cancer-causing biological weapon called “MK Ultra”.
2006 film The Good Shepherd depicts a defector who takes his own life by jumping from a high window after interrogation using torture and LSD.
2008 film Pineapple Express depicts Project MKUltra in the intro scene, although it is portrayed as taking place in 1937.
2009 film The Killing Room invokes Project MKUltra as the foundation to the base plot.
Marvin Boggs (played by John Malkovich) in the films RED (2010) and RED 2 (2013) had unknowingly been provided daily doses of LSD over a period of 11 years, making him highly paranoid, echoing the actions of MKUltra.
2013 film The Banshee Chapter is largely based around MKUltra.
2015 film American Ultra stars Jesse Eisenberg as a stoner slacker who discovers he is the sole survivor of the “Ultra” program, which turned him into the ultimate assassin.
2015 film Mr. Right depicts Hopper (portrayed by Tim Roth) mentioning the MKUltra program (at 27 minutes 15 seconds) as part of the foundation to the main character’s motives and backstory.
The Jason Bourne books and films starring Matt Damon, written by Robert Ludlum, are all based on MKUltra techniques.
Television
The 1998 CBC miniseries The Sleep Room dramatizes brainwashing experiments funded by MKUltra that were performed on Canadian mental patients in the 1950s and 60s, and their subsequent efforts to sue the CIA.[67]
BYUtv’s drama Granite Flats is a fictional dramatization of the implementation of MKUltra by a military hospital in Colorado.
In season 2, episode 19 of Bones, “Spaceman in a Crater”, Jack Hodgins mentions that Frank Olson was an unwitting participant and committed suicide, but that an exhumation 45 years later proved he was murdered.[110]
In an episode of ABC’s Marvel’s Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., “The Things We Bury”, one of the characters makes a reference to MKUltra.
In season 2, episode 5 of Fringe, “Dream Logic”, Walter Bishop briefly mentions his involvement with MKUltra.
In season 6, episode 7 of Archer, “Nellis”, Archer briefly mentions MKUltra while bluffing his way into Area 51; in season 7, episode 8, “Liquid Lunch”, the program is explained to Archer’s colleagues.
In episode “Via Negativa” from the eighth season of The X-Files, The Lone Gunmen mention MKUltra while discussing a case with Agent Doggett.
In The X-Files third-season episode “Jose Chung’s From Outer Space”, Jose Chung mentions the experiments as an example of the powerful effect “mere words” can have over the human mind.
In Alphas, events imply that the Alphas program had its starts in the MKUltra program, and Dr. Rosen has access to certain files from the MKUltra project.
In season 3, episode 10 of NUMB3RS, Don Eppes investigates the assassinations of a senator and a psychiatrist with links to MKUltra.
In the fourth episode of Season 2 of The Blacklist, Cooper mentions Project MKUltra while talking to Elizabeth Keen. The entire episode is based on the premise of using genetic predisposition to make someone commit an act that they most likely would not have done in the first place.
In season 1 of Stranger Things, the antagonist Dr. Martin Brenner is discovered to have been involved in MKUltra. One of the young protagonists, Eleven, was raised in a government laboratory after being born to an MKUltra test subject.
In Season 5, Episode 10 of The West Wing, the White House press secretary is questioned by a reporter about mind control, leading her to investigate MKUltra and the budgetary allocations of DARPA for the project.
Netflix original series Manhunt: Unabomber portrays the psychological torture of 16-year-old Harvard student Theodore Kaczynski by MKUltra researchers. Kaczynski was the perpetrator of serial bombings over a 17-year period and became known as the Unabomber.
The 2017 Netflix documentary re-enactment mini-series Wormwood tells the story of Frank Olson and MKUltra through the eyes of his son, Eric.
In the first season of Dexter’s Laboratory, episode 27, Dexter falls asleep to a literal broken record that only recites a single phrase. He “wakes up” and moves through his day as a brain-washed shell, reciting only one phrase; this style of mind control echoes the MKUltra experiments carried out at Ravens Crag in Montreal, Canada.
Audio
Musician Negative XP’s album “MSG, vol. 1” has a song named “MKUltra victim” referring the MKUltra experiment.
The song “MK Ultra” by British band Muse makes direct reference to this project in the title and uses lyrics to convey the effects of the project directly on a subject.
Lyrics of “Look … The Sun is Rising”, the opening track to The Flaming Lips’ 2013 album The Terror, narrate “a little spaceship” as a mechanism for MKUltra mind control.
The song “The 4th Branch” by rapper Immortal Technique from his album Revolutionary Volume 2, compares modern media to MKUltra, “controlling your brain”.
Black Rebel Motorcycle Club’s songs “US Government” and “MK Ultra” make direct reference to the project, as well as more oblique references.
Progressive metal band Periphery’s song “MK Ultra” makes direct reference to the project in the title.
Olympia-based band Unwound’s song “Mkultra” appears on both the A Single History: 1991–1997 and Rat Conspiracy compilations.
In 2019 British guitar amplifier manufacturer Orange Music Electronic Company designed a custom “one off” amplifier for blues guitarist Marcus King named the “MK Ultra”.[111]
Rapper Lupe Fiasco’s song “They. Resurrect. Over. New.” from his 2015 album Tetsuo & Youth mentions MKUltra.
Heavy metal band Toxic Holocaust’s album Chemistry of Consciousness contains several references to the experiments, including the song “Mkultra”.
On metal band Arsonists Get All the Girls’ 2013 album Listen to the Color, the songs “MK-ULTRA: Psychotropic Puppets” and “MK-DELTA: Glorified Killers” reference the program through title and lyrics.
German band [:SITD:]’s song “MK Ultra” is titled for the project; the lyrics describe a person under the influence of drugs used in the project, losing their grasp on their humanity and mind.
American singer-songwriter Will Wood’s song “BlackBoxWarrior / OKULTRA” describes a person suffering from Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Wood also references and builds off of MKULTRA history in his alternate reality game Mary Bell University.
Others
The Stephen King book Firestarter is based on a fictionalized version of the MK Ultra experiments, and the protagonists all acquire powers as a result of the experimentation.
Alan Glynn, the Irish novelist, uses Project MKUltra as part of the background for his plot in Limitless (also a film) and Paradime (2016).
The horror game Outlast makes several major references to MK Ultra and implies that the experiments on the asylum inmates in the game are either a part of or associated with the program.
Project MKUltra is mentioned in Call of Duty: Black Ops as the Soviet Union’s attempt to turn protagonist Alex Mason into a Soviet sleeper agent with orders to assassinate President Kennedy. Mason’s handler, CIA agent Jason Hudson, even mentions it when telling Mason he had been brainwashed by the Soviets, but was sabotaged to turn on his brainwashers.
Project MKUltra is again mentioned in Call of Duty: Black Ops Cold War as the CIA’s attempt to turn protagonist “Bell” into an American sleeper agent with orders to find out who “Perseus” is. It is revealed and mentioned at the end of the story that “Bell” is a Russian agent who has undergone Project MKUltra.
The game Manhunt 2 is based around “The Pickman Project” which has several similarities to MKUltra and it is likely it was directly inspired by it.
A cannabis strain called MKUltra has been developed by T.H.Seeds of Amsterdam.[112]
Project MKUltra is mentioned in the 2016 video game Mafia III by one of the characters, ex-CIA agent John Donovan.
In the broadway musical We Will Rock You, MKUltra is referred to as the Bohemians are brainwashed and experimented on to become vegetables.
The online, anonymously-written science fiction and horror story 9MOTHER9HORSE9EYES9 borrows from and refers to the MKUltra project directly.[113]
The fictitious video game known as Polybius had spread around as an urban myth in the early 2000s. Many of the key points of Polybius allude to government control testing and other “men in black” type figures, suggesting Polybius took inspiration from project MKUltra at the time of its creation.[114]

See also

United States
CIA activities in the United States
Unethical human experimentation in the United States
International
Allegations of CIA drug trafficking
Human radiation experiments
Human rights violations by the CIA
Poison laboratory of the Soviet secret services
Unit 731
Operations
Category:Central Intelligence Agency operations
Project MKCHICKWIT
Project MKOFTEN
Other
Montauk Project
Harold Blauer – a man who died within project MK-Ultra as a result of a 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine injection
References
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Editors, History.com (August 21, 2018). “MK-Ultra”. History.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved January 2, 2019. Though Project MK-Ultra lasted from 1953 until about 1973, details of the illicit program didn’t become public until 1975, during a congressional investigation into widespread illegal CIA activities within the U.S. and around the world.
Valentine, Douglas (2016). The CIA as Organized Crime: How Illegal Operations Corrupt America and the World. Clarity Press. ISBN 978-0997287011. As Vietnam was winding down, the CIA was beset by Congressional investigations that revealed some of the criminal activities it was involved in, like MKULTRA.
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Church Committee; p. 391 “A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKUltra materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions.”
Church Committee; “The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that ‘[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects.'”
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Book 1: Final report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate : together with additional, supplemental, and separate views. United States Government Printing Office. April 26, 1976. p. 391.
Scheflin, Jr, Alan W.; Opton, Edward M. (1978). The mind manipulators : a non-fiction account. New York: Paddington Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0448229775.
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Further reading
Poisoner in Chief: Sidney Gottlieb and the CIA Search for Mind Control, Henry Holt and Co., by Stephen Kinzer, 2019, ISBN 978-1250140432
The Secret History of Fort Detrick, the CIA’s Base for Mind Control Experiments, by Stephen Kinzer, Politico, 2019.
Potash, John L. (2015). Drugs as Weapons Against Us. Trine Day LLC. ISBN 978-1937584924.
“U.S. Congress: The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence (Church Committee report), report no. 94-755, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1976), 394”.
“U.S. Senate: Joint Hearing before The Select Committee on Intelligence and The Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, 95th Cong., 1st Sess. August 3, 1977”.
“The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”: The CIA and Mind Control: The Secret History of the Behavioral Sciences”.
Acid: The Secret History of LSD, by David Black, London: Vision, 1998, ISBN 1901250113. Later edition exists.
Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond by Martin Lee and Bruce Shlain, New York: Grove Press, 1985, ISBN 0802130623
The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA, by John Ranelagh, pp. 208–10.
80 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time, by Jonathan Vankin and John Whalin, chapter 1, “CIAcid Drop”.
In the Sleep Room: The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada, Anne Collins, Lester & Orpen Dennys (Toronto), 1988.
Journey into Madness: The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse, by Gordon Thomas, NY: Bantam, 1989, ISBN 0553284134
Operation Mind Control: Our Secret Government’s War Against Its Own People, by W H Bowart, New York: Dell, 1978, ISBN 0440167558
The Men Who Stare at Goats, by Jon Ronson, Picador, 2004, ISBN 0330375482
The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, by John Marks, W.W. Norton & Company Ltd, 1999, ISBN 0393307948
Storming Heaven: LSD and The American Dream, by Jay Stevens, New York: Grove Press, 1987, ISBN 0802135870
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Project MKUltra.
Stephen Kinzer – Poisoner in Chief: Sidney Gottlieb and the CIA Search for Mind Control, Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, 2. Oktober 2019
Entire Four (4) CD-ROM set of CIA / MKUltra Declassified documents released by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), image format, The Black Vault
MKUltra Declassified documents, PDF format
U.S. Supreme Court, CIA v. Sims, 471 U.S. 159 (1985) 471 U.S. 159, Findlaw
U.S. Supreme Court, United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669 (1987) 483 U.S. 669, Findlaw
Mind Control and MKULTRA by Richard G. Gall
The Most Dangerous Game Downloadable 8 minute documentary by independent filmmakers GNN
Results of the 1973 Church Committee Hearings, on CIA misdeeds, and the 1984 Iran/Contra Hearings
XXVII. Testing and Use of Chemical and Biological Agents by the Intelligence Community
List of MKULTRA Unclassified Documents including subprojects
MK Ultra Project
Dunning, Brian (July 30, 2013). “Skeptoid #373: The Secrets of MKULTRA”. Skeptoid.
vte
United States chemical weapons program
United States portal
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
Categories: Project MKUltra1953 establishments in the United StatesCentral Intelligence Agency operationsCode namesCover-upsDevices to alter consciousnessHistory of the government of the United StatesHuman subject research in the United StatesInvestigations and hearings of the United States CongressLysergic acid diethylamideAmerican medical research20th-century military history of the United StatesMilitary psychiatryMind controlPsychedelic drug researchAmerican secret government programsHuman rights abuses in the United StatesMedical experimentation on prisonersAcademic scandalsTorture in the United StatesPsychoactive drugs and the militaryClandestine operationsCIA cryptonyms

IX. Ritual Abuse, Ritual Crime and Healing

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